Chemical properties refer to the obvious characteristics of materials when chemical reactions or chemical changes occur. People cannot observe the chemical properties of materials only by observing or touching the samples of materials; The actual structure of the material must be changed so that people can observe its chemical properties.
Chemical properties can only be determined by changing the chemical properties of substances. Unlike physical properties, physical properties can be observed by observing or touching samples.
The internal properties of a substance must be changed to determine its chemical properties. For example:
Flammability - the ease with which something burns or ignites is a chemical property because you can't judge by just observing the ease with which something burns. Fire tests are conducted to determine how easy it is to make a material burn.
Information on flammability is used for building codes, fire codes, insurance requirements, and the storage, handling, and transportation of highly flammable materials.
The heat of combustion - this chemical property refers to the energy released in the form of heat when a substance burns with oxygen.
Examples of this chemical property are the calories converted into energy in the body and the heat produced by burning various fuels.
Toxicity - the extent to which a substance damages animals, plants, cells, organs, or other organisms is its toxicity. Materials with chemical toxicity include lead, chlorine, hydrofluoric acid, and mercury. Toxicity is measured by the impact of lead, chlorine, mercury, or other substances on organisms - basically, by the degree of damage, it causes to organisms and the speed at which damage occurs.
For example, lead is a toxic substance that can damage all parts of the human body, including bones, heart, kidneys, intestines, nerves, and reproductive systems.
Oxidation ability - this occurs by obtaining oxygen, losing hydrogen, or losing electrons. It is a chemical property that changes the oxidation value of a substance. Rust is an example. Iron and steel (made of iron) will rust over time. However, if they are combined with pure oxygen, they will rust faster.
Examples of oxidation include apples turning brown after being cut, a penny turning green, and car fenders rusting.
Radioactivity - radiation emitted by unstable atoms in the nucleus. It is a chemical property. On the periodic table, elements without stable isotopes are considered radioactive.
Some of the most radioactive elements are hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, calcium, cobalt, zinc, and iron.
Chemical stability - the chemical properties in a given environment, also known as the thermodynamic stability of a chemical system, refers to the stability - chemical equilibrium state, or equilibrium state with its environment when the chemical system is in its lowest energy state.
This balance will continue indefinitely unless the system changes.
The half-life of this chemical property is the time required for half the decay of the original material.
It is used in nuclear chemistry and physics to describe the time required for half of the unstable radioactive atoms in the sample to undergo radioactive decay.
These are just a few examples of the many chemical properties of substances. Now you can better understand what chemical properties are. Remember, unlike physical properties, it is a property that can only be observed through chemical reactions. For more information on this topic, please read the difference between chemical change and physical change.